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BIBLIOGRAPHY

The literature of the Great Game, in all its many aspects, is vast. The following list of titles, although far from exhaustive, includes those works which I found most valuable while researching and writing this book. Many of the books are long out of print, and can only be obtained from specialist libraries or at great expense. The Afghan wars, the Crimean War, the Eastern Question, Anglo-Russian relations and the Russo-Japanese War, although inseparable from the Great Game, are major subjects on their own, with substantial literatures devoted to them. I have therefore listed only those works which I found most useful. Also, for the sake of brevity, I have omitted reports and articles from contemporary newspapers from which I have quoted, although these are usually identified in the text. For the same reason, and because they are unlikely to interest the general reader, I have not listed the file numbers where I have drawn on the Political and Secret files of the day, now in the India Office Library and Records. Except where otherwise indicated, all the works below were published in London.


Abbott, Capt. James, Narrative of a Journey from Heraut to Khiva, Moscow and St Petersburg, during the late Russian invasion of Khiva. 1843.

Adam, Mme, Le General Skobeleff. Paris, 1886.

Addy, Premen, Tibet on the Imperial Chessboard. Calcutta, 1984.

Adye, Gen. Sir John, Indian Frontier Policy. 1897.

Alder, Dr Garry, British India's Northern Frontier, 1865 1895. 1963.

Beyond Bokhara. The Life of William Moorcroft. 1985.

Alder, L., and Dalby, R., The Dervish of Windsor Castle. The Life of Arminius Vambery. 1979.

Alexander, Michael, The True Blue. The Life and Adventures of Colonel Fred Burnaby, 18421885. 1957.

Ali, Mahfuz, The Truth about Russia and England. From a Native's Point of View. Lucknow, 1886.

Allen, W. E. D., and Muratoff, P., Caucasian Battlefields. A History of the Wars on the Turco-Caucasian Border, 1828 1921. Cambridge, 1953.

Anderson, M. S., Britain's Discovery of Russia, 1553 1815. 1958.

The Eastern Question, 17741923. 1966.

Andrew, C, and Noakes, ]., Intelligence and International Relations, 19001945. Exeter, 1987.

Andrew, Sir William, Euphrates Valley Route to India, in connection with the Central Asian and Egyptian Questions. 1882.

'An Indian Army Officer', Russia's March towards India. 2 vols. 1894.

'An Old Indian', Russia Versus India. Or observations on the present political relations of England with the East. 1838.

Anon., Invasions of India from Central Asia. 1879.

Anon., Notes on the Relations of British India with Some of the Countries West of the Indus. 1839.

Anon., Russia's Next Move Towards India. 1885.

Anon., The Dardanelles for England. The True Solution of the Eastern Question. 1876.

Argyle, Duke of, The Eastern Question. 2 vols. 1879.

Armstrong, T. (ed.), Yermak's Campaign in Siberia. 1975.

'Arthur Vincent', The Defence of India. 1922.

Baddeley, John F., The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus. 1908.

Baker, ]'. N. L., A History of Geographical Discovery and Exploration. 1931.

Baker, Col. Valentine, Clouds in the East. Travels and Adventures on the Perso-Turkoman Frontier. 1876.

Barr, Lt. W., Journal of a March from Delhi to Peshawur and from thence to Cabul with the Mission of Lieut.-Colonel Sir C.M. Wade. 1844.

Bartlett, E. A., Shall England Keep India? 1886.

Barton, Sir W., India's North-West Frontier. 1939.

Baskakov, V. (trans.), A History of Afghanistan. Moscow, 1985.

Baxter, W. E., England and Russia in Asia. 1885.

Becker, S., Russia's Protectorates in Central Asia. Bokhara and Khiva, 18651924. Cambridge, Mass., 1968.

Bell, Maj. Evans, The Oxus and the Indus. 1869. Bell, James S., Journal of a Residence in Circassia during the Years 1837, 1838 and 1839. 2 vols. 1840.

Bell, Col. M. S., Afghanistan as a Theatre of Operations and as a Defence to India. Calcutta, 1885.

Bellew, Surg.-Maj. H.W., Journal of a Political Mission to Afghanistan in 1857. 1862.

From the Indus to the Tigris, a Journey through the Countries of Balochistan, Afghanistan, Khorassan and Iran in 1872. 1873.

Kashmir and Kashgar. A Narrative of the Journey of the Embassy to Kashgar in 18731874. 1875. Benyon, Lt. W. G. L., With Kelly to Chitral. 1896. Beresford, Col. C.E., 'Russian Railways towards India', Proceedings of the Central Asian Society. 1906. Blanch, Lesley, The Sabres of Paradise. 1960. Blood, Gen. Sir Bindon, Four Score Years and Ten. 1933. Bonvalot, Gabriel, Through the Heart of Asia. Over the Pamirs to India. 2 vols. 1889.

Boulger, Demetrius, England and Russia in Central Asia. 2 vols. 1879.

Central Asian Portraits. 1880.

Central Asian Questions. Essays on Afghanistan, China and Central Asia. 1885. Bower, Capt. Hamilton, Diary of a Journey Across Tibet. Calcutta, 1893.

Bremner, Robert, Excursions in the Interior of Russia, including Sketches of the Character and Policy of the Emperor Nicholas. 2 vols. 1839.

Bruce, R. I., The Forward Policy and its Results. 1900. Buchan, John, The Half-Hearted. 1900. Buckland, . ., Dictionary of Indian Biography. 1906. Burnaby, Capt. Frederick, A Ride to Khiva. Travels and Adventures in Central Asia. 1876.

On Horseback through Asia Minor. 2 vols. 1877. Burnes, Sir Alexander, Travels into Bokhara. 3 vols. 1834. Cabool. Being a Personal Narrative of a Journey to, and Residence in, that City in the Years 1836, 7 and 8.1842. Burslem, Capt. R., A Peep into Toorkistan. 1846.

Cameron, Lt.-Col. G. P., Personal Adventures and Excursions in Georgia, Circassia and Russia. 2 vols. 1845.

Campbell, Sir George, The Afghan Frontier. 1879.

Caroe, Sir Olaf, ThePathans, 550 їAD 1957. 1958.

Cazelet, E., England's Policy in the East. Our Relations with Russia. 1876.

Chakravarty, S., From Khyber to Oxus. A Study of Imperial

Expansion. Delhi, 1976.

Chavda, V. K., India, Britain, Russia. A Study in British Opinion, 18381878. Delhi, 1967.

Chirol, Sir Valentine, The Middle Eastern Question, or Some Problems of Indian Defence. 1903.

Chohan, A. S., The digit Agency, 18771935. Delhi, n.d. (1980s).

Churchill, R. P., The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. Cedar Rapids, USA, 1939.

Clayton, G. D., Britain and the Eastern Question. Misso-longhi to Gallipoli. 1971.

Cobbold, Ralph, Innermost Asia. Travel and Sport in the Pamirs. 1900.

Coen, . , The Indian Political Service. 1971.

Collen, Lt.-Gen. Sir E., The Defence of India. 1906.

Colquhoun, A. R., Russia Against India. 1906.

Colquhoun, Capt. J., Essay on the Formation of an Intelligence Department for India. 1874.

Conolly, Lt. Arthur, Journey to the North of India, Overland from England, Through Russia, Persia and Affghauni-staun. 2 vols. 1834.

Cory, Col. A., Shadows of Coming Events. 1876.

Costin, W. C, Great Britain and China, 1833 1860. Oxford, 1937.

Cotton, Sir S., The Central Asian Question. Dublin, 1878.

Curzon, Hon. George N., Russia in Central Asia. 1889. Persia and the Persian Question. 2 vols. 1892. The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus. 1896. Frontiers. Oxford, 1907.

Custine, Marquis de, Journey For Our Time. Russia in 1839. 1953.

Dabbs, Jack, History of the Discovery and Exploration of Chinese Turkestan. The Hague, 1963.

Dacosta, J., A Scientific Frontier. 1891,

Dallin, D., The Rise of Russia in Asia. New Haven, USA, 1949.

David, Maj. C, Is A Russian Invasion of India Feasible? 1877.

Davies, . , The Problem of the North-West Frontier, 1890 1908. With a Survey of Policy since 1849. Cambridge, 1932.

Davis, H. W. C, The Great Game in Asia, 18001844. Raleigh Lecture, 1926.

Dekhnewala, A., The Great Russian Invasion of India. 1879. Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, 1921.

Dilke, Sir C, and Wilkinson, W., Imperial Defence. 1892.

Dobson, G., Russia's Railway Advance into Central Asia. 1890.

Durand, Col. Algernon, The Making of a Frontier. Five Years' Experience and Adventures in Gilgit, Hunza, Nagar, Chi-tral and the Eastern Hindu Kush. 1899.

Durand, Sir Henry, The First Afghan War. 1879.

Edwardes, Maj. Herbert, A Year on the Punjab Frontier, in 18481849. 2 vols. 1851.

Edwardes, Michael, Playing the Great Game. A Victorian Cold War. 1975.

Edwards, H. S., Russian Projects against India, from Czar Peter to General Skobeleff. 1885.

Ellenborough, Lord, Political Diary, 18281830. 2 vols. 1881.

Elliott, Maj.-Gen./. G., The Frontier, 18391847. 1968.

English, Barbara, John Company's Last War. 1971.

Entner, M.L., Russo-Persian Commercial Relations, 1828 1914. Gainsville, USA, 1965.

Evans, Col. George de Lacy, On the Designs of Russia. 1828. On the Practicability of an Invasion of British India. 1829.

Eyre, Lt. Vincent, The Military Operations at Cabul, which ended in the Retreat and Destruction of the British Army, January 1842. 1843.

Fairley, Jean, The Lion River: The Indus. 1975.

Faris, Selim, The Decline of British Prestige in the East. 1887.

Fisher, A. W., The Russian Annexation of the Crimea, 17721728. Cambridge, 1970.

Fleming, Peter, Bayonets to Lhasa. The British Invasion of Tibet in 1904.1961.

Forsyth, Sir Douglas, Report of a Mission to Yarkand in 1873. Calcutta, 1875.

Forsyth, E. (ed.), Autobiography and Reminiscences of Sir

Douglas Forsyth. 1887.

Fraser-Tytler, Sir W. K., Afghanistan. A Study of Political Developments in Central Asia. 1950.

Frechtling, L. E., 'Anglo-Russian Rivalry in Eastern Tur-kistan, 18631881', Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society. Vol. XXVI. 1939.

Fredericks, P. G., The Sepoy and the Cossack. 1972.

Geyer, Dietrich, Russian Imperialism. The Interaction of Domestic and Foreign Policy, 1860 1914. Leamington Spa, 1987.

Gillard, David, The Struggle for Asia, 18281914. 1977.

Gleason, J.H., The Genesis of Russophobia in Great Britain. Cambridge, USA, 1950.

Glover, M., A Very Slippery Fellow. The Life of Sir Robert Wilson, 1777-1849. Oxford, 1977.

Colder, F. A., Russian Expansion on the Pacific, 1641 1850. Cleveland, USA, 1914.

Goldsmid, Col. Sir F., Central Asia and its Question. 1873. Eastern Persia. 2 vols. 1876.

Gopal, S., British Policy in India, 18581905. Cambridge, 1965.

Gordon, . ., The Roof of the World. Edinburgh, 1876. A Varied Life. 1906.

Grant Duff, M.E., The Eastern Question. Edinburgh, 1876.

Greaves, R. L., Persia and the Defence of India, 1884 1892. 1959.

Green, Col. Sir H., The Defence of the North-West Frontier of India, with Reference to the Advance of Russia in Central Asia. 1873.

Grover, Capt. John, An Appeal to the British Nation on Behalf of Colonel Stoddart and. Captain Conolly, Now in Captivity in Bokhara. 1843.

The Bokhara Victims. 1845.

The Ameer of Bokhara and Lord Aberdeen. 1845.

Habberton, W., 'Anglo-Russian Relations concerning Afghanistan, 18371907', Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences. Vol.21. 1937.

Hall, L., A Brief Guide to Sources for the Study of Afghanistan in the India Office Records. 1981.

Hanna, Col. H. ., Can Russia Invade India? 1895.

India's Scientific Frontier. Where is it? What is it? 1895. Backwards or Forwards? n.d. (1895). The Second Afghan War, 187818791880. 3 vols. 18991910. Harris, J., Much Sounding of Bugles. The Siege of Chitral, 1895. 1975.

Harrison, J. A., The Founding of the Russian Empire in Asia and America. Miami, USA, 1971.

Havelock, Capt. H., Narrative of the War in Afghanistan. 1840. Haxthausen, Baron A. von, The Tribes of the Caucasus. With an Account of Schamyl and the Murids. 1855.

Hayward, George, 'Journey from Leh to Yarkand and Kashgar'. Read Dec. 13, 1869. Journal of the RGS. 1871.

'Letters from Mr G. W. Hayward on his Explorations in Gilgit and Yassin'. Read Nov. 15, 1870. Journal of the RGS. 1872. Heathcote, T. A., The Afghan Wars, 18391919. 1980. Hellwald, F. von, The Russians in Central Asia. 1874. Henze, P. ., 'Fire and Sword in the Caucasus. The 19th century resistance of the North Caucasian Mountaineers', Central Asian Survey. Oxford, 1983.

Heumann, Capt., Les Russes et les Anglais dans L'Asie Cen-trale. Paris, 1885.

Holdich, Sir Thomas,The Indian Borderland, 18801900. 1901.

The Gates of India. 1910. Holdsworth, M., Turkestan in the 19th Century. A Brief History of the Khanates of Bukhara, Kokand and Khiva. Oxford, 1959.

Hopkirk, Peter, Trespassers on the Roof of the World. The Race for Lhasa. 1982.

Setting the East Ablaze. Lenin's Dream of an Empire in Asia. 1984. Hoskins, H. L., British Routes to India. New York, 1928. Hsu, I. C. Y., The Hi Crisis. Oxford, 1965. Hue, F., Les Russes et les Anglais dans L'Afghanistan. Paris, 1885.

Hunt, Capt. G. H., Outram and Havelock's Persian Campaign. 1858.

Hutchinson, A. H., The Next Battlefield. 1871. Hutton, J., Central Asia: From the Aryan to the Cossack. 1875. Ingle, H.N., Nesselrode and the Russian Rapprochement with Britain, 18361844. Berkeley, USA, 1976.

Ingram, Edward, The Beginning of the Great Game in Asia, 18281834. Oxford, 1979.

Commitment to Empire. Prophesies of the Great Game in Asia, 17971800. Oxford, 1981. In Defence of British India. Great Britain in the Middle East, 17751842. 1984. James, Lionel, With thehitral Relief Force. Calcutta, 1895. Jelavich, ., A Century of Russian Foreign Policy, 1814 1914. Philadelphia, USA, 1964.

Jerningham, H.E., Russia's Warnings. Collected from Official Papers. 1885.

Kalmykow, A. D., Memoirs of a Russian Diplomat. Outposts of the Empire, 18931917. New Haven, USA, 1971.

Kaye, Sir John, History of the War in Afghanistan. 2 vols. 1851. (Revised in 3 vols., 1874.)

Life and Correspondence of Major-General Sir John Malcolm. 2 vols. 1856. Lives of Indian Officers. 2 vols. 1867. Kazemzadeh, F., Russia and Britain in Persia, 1864 1914. New Haven, USA, 1968.

Keay, John, When Men and Mountains Meet. 1977.

The Gilgit Game. 1979. Kelly, J. ., Britain and the Persian Gulf, 17951880. Oxford, 1968.

Kessler, M.M., Ivan Viktorovich Vitkevich, 1806 1839. A Tsarist Agent in Central Asia. Washington, USA, 1960.

Khalfin, N. A., Russia's Policy in Central Asia, 1857 1863. (Condensed and translated from the 1960 Moscow edn.) 1964.

Khanikoff, M., Bokhara, its Amir and its People. (From the Russian.) 1845.

Khiva. A Narrative of the Russian Military Expedition to Khiva under General Perofski in 1839. (From the Russian.) Calcutta, 1867.

Kinneir, J.M., Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire. 1813.

Journey through Asia Minor, Armenia and Koordistan in 18131814. 1818. Kipling, Rudyard, Kim. 1901. Knight, E. F., Where Three Empires Meet. 1894. Kostenko, Capt. L. F., Description of the Journey of a Russian Mission to Bokhara in 1870. (From the Russian.) Secret and Political Department, India Office, n.d. Krausse, A., Russia in Asia. 1899.

Kuropatkin, Col. A.N., Kashgaria. Historical and Geographical Sketch of the Country, its Military Strength, Industries and Trade. (From the Russian.) Calcutta, 1882.

Les Confins Anglo-Russes dans L'Asie Centrale. (From the Russian.) Paris, 1885.

Lai, Mohan, Journal of a Tour through the Panjab, Afghanistan, Turkestan, Khorasan and Part of Persia. Calcutta, 1834. Life of the Amir Dost Muhammed Khan of Kabul. 2 vols. 1846. Lamb, A., Britain and Chinese Central Asia. The Road to Lhasa, 17671905. 1960.

'Late Resident at Bhagulpore', The Dangers of British India from French Invasion. 1808. Lawrence, Sir George, Forty-three Years in India. 1874. Lobonov-Rostovsky, Prince A., Russia and Asia. New York, 1933.

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Longworth, J. A., A Year Among the Circassians. 2 vols. 1840.

Lunt, James, Bokhara Burnes. 1969.

MacGregor, Col. .., Narrative of a Journey through the Provinces of Khorassan and on the N. W. Frontier of Afghanistan in 1875. 2 vols. 1879.

Wanderings in Baluchistan. 1882. (Gen. Sir Charles), The Defence of India. Simla, 1884. MacGregor, Lady (ed.), The Life and Opinions of Major-General Sir Charles MacGregor. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1888.

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A Person from England. 1958.

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Macrory, Sir Patrick, Signal Catastrophe. The Retreat from Kabul, 1842. 1956.

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Man-Stealing Turkomans. 1881.

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The Russians at Merv and Herat, and their Power of Invading India. 1883.

The Russian Railway to Herat and India. 1883.

The Russian Annexation of Merv. 1884.

Reconnoitring Central Asia. 1884.

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the Petroleum Region of the Caspian in 1883. 1884.

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(trans, and ed.), Colonel Grodekoff's Ride from Samarkand to Herat. 1880.

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Narrative of a Journey to Kalat. 1843.

Masters, John, The Lotus and the Wind. 1953.

Maxwell, Col. Leigh, My God Maiwand! Operations of the South Afghanistan Field Force, 18781880. 1979.

Mayer, S.R., Afghanistan. Its Political and Military History and an Appendix on the Prospects of a Russian Invasion of India. 1879.

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From Kulja across the Tian Shan to Lob Nor. (From the Russian.) 1879.

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Seaver, George, Francis Younghusband. Explorer and Mystic. 1952.

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The Russian Empire, 18011917. Oxford, 1967.

Seton-Watson, R. W., Disraeli, Gladstone and the Eastern Question. 1935.

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