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The literature of the Great Game, in all its many aspects, is vast. The following list of titles, although far from exhaustive, includes those works which I found most valuable while researching and writing this book. Many of the books are long out of print, and can only be obtained from specialist libraries or at great expense. The Afghan wars, the Crimean War, the Eastern Question, Anglo-Russian relations and the Russo-Japanese War, although inseparable from the Great Game, are major subjects on their own, with substantial literatures devoted to them. I have therefore listed only those works which I found most useful. Also, for the sake of brevity, I have omitted reports and articles from contemporary newspapers from which I have quoted, although these are usually identified in the text. For the same reason, and because they are unlikely to interest the general reader, I have not listed the file numbers where I have drawn on the Political and Secret files of the day, now in the India Office Library and Records. Except where otherwise indicated, all the works below were published in London.

Abbott, Capt. James, Narrative of a Journey from Heraut to Khiva, Moscow and St Petersburg, during the late Russian invasion of Khiva. 1843.

Adam, Mme, Le General Skobeleff. Paris, 1886.

Addy, Premen, Tibet on the Imperial Chessboard. Calcutta, 1984.

Adye, Gen. Sir John, Indian Frontier Policy. 1897.

Alder, Dr Garry, British India's Northern Frontier, 1865 1895. 1963.

Beyond Bokhara. The Life of William Moorcroft. 1985.

Alder, L., and Dalby, R., The Dervish of Windsor Castle. The Life of Arminius Vambery. 1979.

Alexander, Michael, The True Blue. The Life and Adventures of Colonel Fred Burnaby, 18421885. 1957.

Ali, Mahfuz, The Truth about Russia and England. From a Native's Point of View. Lucknow, 1886.

Allen, W. E. D., and Muratoff, P., Caucasian Battlefields. A History of the Wars on the Turco-Caucasian Border, 1828 1921. Cambridge, 1953.

Anderson, M. S., Britain's Discovery of Russia, 1553 1815. 1958.

The Eastern Question, 17741923. 1966.

Andrew, C, and Noakes, ]., Intelligence and International Relations, 19001945. Exeter, 1987.

Andrew, Sir William, Euphrates Valley Route to India, in connection with the Central Asian and Egyptian Questions. 1882.

'An Indian Army Officer', Russia's March towards India. 2 vols. 1894.

'An Old Indian', Russia Versus India. Or observations on the present political relations of England with the East. 1838.

Anon., Invasions of India from Central Asia. 1879.

Anon., Notes on the Relations of British India with Some of the Countries West of the Indus. 1839.

Anon., Russia's Next Move Towards India. 1885.

Anon., The Dardanelles for England. The True Solution of the Eastern Question. 1876.

Argyle, Duke of, The Eastern Question. 2 vols. 1879.

Armstrong, T. (ed.), Yermak's Campaign in Siberia. 1975.

'Arthur Vincent', The Defence of India. 1922.

Baddeley, John F., The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus. 1908.

Baker, ]'. N. L., A History of Geographical Discovery and Exploration. 1931.

Baker, Col. Valentine, Clouds in the East. Travels and Adventures on the Perso-Turkoman Frontier. 1876.

Barr, Lt. W., Journal of a March from Delhi to Peshawur and from thence to Cabul with the Mission of Lieut.-Colonel Sir C.M. Wade. 1844.

Bartlett, E. A., Shall England Keep India? 1886.

Barton, Sir W., India's North-West Frontier. 1939.

Baskakov, V. (trans.), A History of Afghanistan. Moscow, 1985.

Baxter, W. E., England and Russia in Asia. 1885.

Becker, S., Russia's Protectorates in Central Asia. Bokhara and Khiva, 18651924. Cambridge, Mass., 1968.

Bell, Maj. Evans, The Oxus and the Indus. 1869. Bell, James S., Journal of a Residence in Circassia during the Years 1837, 1838 and 1839. 2 vols. 1840.

Bell, Col. M. S., Afghanistan as a Theatre of Operations and as a Defence to India. Calcutta, 1885.

Bellew, Surg.-Maj. H.W., Journal of a Political Mission to Afghanistan in 1857. 1862.

From the Indus to the Tigris, a Journey through the Countries of Balochistan, Afghanistan, Khorassan and Iran in 1872. 1873.

Kashmir and Kashgar. A Narrative of the Journey of the Embassy to Kashgar in 18731874. 1875. Benyon, Lt. W. G. L., With Kelly to Chitral. 1896. Beresford, Col. C.E., 'Russian Railways towards India', Proceedings of the Central Asian Society. 1906. Blanch, Lesley, The Sabres of Paradise. 1960. Blood, Gen. Sir Bindon, Four Score Years and Ten. 1933. Bonvalot, Gabriel, Through the Heart of Asia. Over the Pamirs to India. 2 vols. 1889.

Boulger, Demetrius, England and Russia in Central Asia. 2 vols. 1879.

Central Asian Portraits. 1880.

Central Asian Questions. Essays on Afghanistan, China and Central Asia. 1885. Bower, Capt. Hamilton, Diary of a Journey Across Tibet. Calcutta, 1893.

Bremner, Robert, Excursions in the Interior of Russia, including Sketches of the Character and Policy of the Emperor Nicholas. 2 vols. 1839.

Bruce, R. I., The Forward Policy and its Results. 1900. Buchan, John, The Half-Hearted. 1900. Buckland, . ., Dictionary of Indian Biography. 1906. Burnaby, Capt. Frederick, A Ride to Khiva. Travels and Adventures in Central Asia. 1876.

On Horseback through Asia Minor. 2 vols. 1877. Burnes, Sir Alexander, Travels into Bokhara. 3 vols. 1834. Cabool. Being a Personal Narrative of a Journey to, and Residence in, that City in the Years 1836, 7 and 8.1842. Burslem, Capt. R., A Peep into Toorkistan. 1846.

Cameron, Lt.-Col. G. P., Personal Adventures and Excursions in Georgia, Circassia and Russia. 2 vols. 1845.

Campbell, Sir George, The Afghan Frontier. 1879.

Caroe, Sir Olaf, ThePathans, 550 їAD 1957. 1958.

Cazelet, E., England's Policy in the East. Our Relations with Russia. 1876.

Chakravarty, S., From Khyber to Oxus. A Study of Imperial

Expansion. Delhi, 1976.

Chavda, V. K., India, Britain, Russia. A Study in British Opinion, 18381878. Delhi, 1967.

Chirol, Sir Valentine, The Middle Eastern Question, or Some Problems of Indian Defence. 1903.

Chohan, A. S., The digit Agency, 18771935. Delhi, n.d. (1980s).

Churchill, R. P., The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. Cedar Rapids, USA, 1939.

Clayton, G. D., Britain and the Eastern Question. Misso-longhi to Gallipoli. 1971.

Cobbold, Ralph, Innermost Asia. Travel and Sport in the Pamirs. 1900.

Coen, . , The Indian Political Service. 1971.

Collen, Lt.-Gen. Sir E., The Defence of India. 1906.

Colquhoun, A. R., Russia Against India. 1906.

Colquhoun, Capt. J., Essay on the Formation of an Intelligence Department for India. 1874.

Conolly, Lt. Arthur, Journey to the North of India, Overland from England, Through Russia, Persia and Affghauni-staun. 2 vols. 1834.

Cory, Col. A., Shadows of Coming Events. 1876.

Costin, W. C, Great Britain and China, 1833 1860. Oxford, 1937.

Cotton, Sir S., The Central Asian Question. Dublin, 1878.

Curzon, Hon. George N., Russia in Central Asia. 1889. Persia and the Persian Question. 2 vols. 1892. The Pamirs and the Source of the Oxus. 1896. Frontiers. Oxford, 1907.

Custine, Marquis de, Journey For Our Time. Russia in 1839. 1953.

Dabbs, Jack, History of the Discovery and Exploration of Chinese Turkestan. The Hague, 1963.

Dacosta, J., A Scientific Frontier. 1891,

Dallin, D., The Rise of Russia in Asia. New Haven, USA, 1949.

David, Maj. C, Is A Russian Invasion of India Feasible? 1877.

Davies, . , The Problem of the North-West Frontier, 1890 1908. With a Survey of Policy since 1849. Cambridge, 1932.

Davis, H. W. C, The Great Game in Asia, 18001844. Raleigh Lecture, 1926.

Dekhnewala, A., The Great Russian Invasion of India. 1879. Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, 1921.

Dilke, Sir C, and Wilkinson, W., Imperial Defence. 1892.

Dobson, G., Russia's Railway Advance into Central Asia. 1890.

Durand, Col. Algernon, The Making of a Frontier. Five Years' Experience and Adventures in Gilgit, Hunza, Nagar, Chi-tral and the Eastern Hindu Kush. 1899.

Durand, Sir Henry, The First Afghan War. 1879.

Edwardes, Maj. Herbert, A Year on the Punjab Frontier, in 18481849. 2 vols. 1851.

Edwardes, Michael, Playing the Great Game. A Victorian Cold War. 1975.

Edwards, H. S., Russian Projects against India, from Czar Peter to General Skobeleff. 1885.

Ellenborough, Lord, Political Diary, 18281830. 2 vols. 1881.

Elliott, Maj.-Gen./. G., The Frontier, 18391847. 1968.

English, Barbara, John Company's Last War. 1971.

Entner, M.L., Russo-Persian Commercial Relations, 1828 1914. Gainsville, USA, 1965.

Evans, Col. George de Lacy, On the Designs of Russia. 1828. On the Practicability of an Invasion of British India. 1829.

Eyre, Lt. Vincent, The Military Operations at Cabul, which ended in the Retreat and Destruction of the British Army, January 1842. 1843.

Fairley, Jean, The Lion River: The Indus. 1975.

Faris, Selim, The Decline of British Prestige in the East. 1887.

Fisher, A. W., The Russian Annexation of the Crimea, 17721728. Cambridge, 1970.

Fleming, Peter, Bayonets to Lhasa. The British Invasion of Tibet in 1904.1961.

Forsyth, Sir Douglas, Report of a Mission to Yarkand in 1873. Calcutta, 1875.

Forsyth, E. (ed.), Autobiography and Reminiscences of Sir

Douglas Forsyth. 1887.

Fraser-Tytler, Sir W. K., Afghanistan. A Study of Political Developments in Central Asia. 1950.

Frechtling, L. E., 'Anglo-Russian Rivalry in Eastern Tur-kistan, 18631881', Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society. Vol. XXVI. 1939.

Fredericks, P. G., The Sepoy and the Cossack. 1972.

Geyer, Dietrich, Russian Imperialism. The Interaction of Domestic and Foreign Policy, 1860 1914. Leamington Spa, 1987.

Gillard, David, The Struggle for Asia, 18281914. 1977.

Gleason, J.H., The Genesis of Russophobia in Great Britain. Cambridge, USA, 1950.

Glover, M., A Very Slippery Fellow. The Life of Sir Robert Wilson, 1777-1849. Oxford, 1977.

Colder, F. A., Russian Expansion on the Pacific, 1641 1850. Cleveland, USA, 1914.

Goldsmid, Col. Sir F., Central Asia and its Question. 1873. Eastern Persia. 2 vols. 1876.

Gopal, S., British Policy in India, 18581905. Cambridge, 1965.

Gordon, . ., The Roof of the World. Edinburgh, 1876. A Varied Life. 1906.

Grant Duff, M.E., The Eastern Question. Edinburgh, 1876.

Greaves, R. L., Persia and the Defence of India, 1884 1892. 1959.

Green, Col. Sir H., The Defence of the North-West Frontier of India, with Reference to the Advance of Russia in Central Asia. 1873.

Grover, Capt. John, An Appeal to the British Nation on Behalf of Colonel Stoddart and. Captain Conolly, Now in Captivity in Bokhara. 1843.

The Bokhara Victims. 1845.

The Ameer of Bokhara and Lord Aberdeen. 1845.

Habberton, W., 'Anglo-Russian Relations concerning Afghanistan, 18371907', Illinois Studies in the Social Sciences. Vol.21. 1937.

Hall, L., A Brief Guide to Sources for the Study of Afghanistan in the India Office Records. 1981.

Hanna, Col. H. ., Can Russia Invade India? 1895.

India's Scientific Frontier. Where is it? What is it? 1895. Backwards or Forwards? n.d. (1895). The Second Afghan War, 187818791880. 3 vols. 18991910. Harris, J., Much Sounding of Bugles. The Siege of Chitral, 1895. 1975.

Harrison, J. A., The Founding of the Russian Empire in Asia and America. Miami, USA, 1971.

Havelock, Capt. H., Narrative of the War in Afghanistan. 1840. Haxthausen, Baron A. von, The Tribes of the Caucasus. With an Account of Schamyl and the Murids. 1855.

Hayward, George, 'Journey from Leh to Yarkand and Kashgar'. Read Dec. 13, 1869. Journal of the RGS. 1871.

'Letters from Mr G. W. Hayward on his Explorations in Gilgit and Yassin'. Read Nov. 15, 1870. Journal of the RGS. 1872. Heathcote, T. A., The Afghan Wars, 18391919. 1980. Hellwald, F. von, The Russians in Central Asia. 1874. Henze, P. ., 'Fire and Sword in the Caucasus. The 19th century resistance of the North Caucasian Mountaineers', Central Asian Survey. Oxford, 1983.

Heumann, Capt., Les Russes et les Anglais dans L'Asie Cen-trale. Paris, 1885.

Holdich, Sir Thomas,The Indian Borderland, 18801900. 1901.

The Gates of India. 1910. Holdsworth, M., Turkestan in the 19th Century. A Brief History of the Khanates of Bukhara, Kokand and Khiva. Oxford, 1959.

Hopkirk, Peter, Trespassers on the Roof of the World. The Race for Lhasa. 1982.

Setting the East Ablaze. Lenin's Dream of an Empire in Asia. 1984. Hoskins, H. L., British Routes to India. New York, 1928. Hsu, I. C. Y., The Hi Crisis. Oxford, 1965. Hue, F., Les Russes et les Anglais dans L'Afghanistan. Paris, 1885.

Hunt, Capt. G. H., Outram and Havelock's Persian Campaign. 1858.

Hutchinson, A. H., The Next Battlefield. 1871. Hutton, J., Central Asia: From the Aryan to the Cossack. 1875. Ingle, H.N., Nesselrode and the Russian Rapprochement with Britain, 18361844. Berkeley, USA, 1976.

Ingram, Edward, The Beginning of the Great Game in Asia, 18281834. Oxford, 1979.

Commitment to Empire. Prophesies of the Great Game in Asia, 17971800. Oxford, 1981. In Defence of British India. Great Britain in the Middle East, 17751842. 1984. James, Lionel, With thehitral Relief Force. Calcutta, 1895. Jelavich, ., A Century of Russian Foreign Policy, 1814 1914. Philadelphia, USA, 1964.

Jerningham, H.E., Russia's Warnings. Collected from Official Papers. 1885.

Kalmykow, A. D., Memoirs of a Russian Diplomat. Outposts of the Empire, 18931917. New Haven, USA, 1971.

Kaye, Sir John, History of the War in Afghanistan. 2 vols. 1851. (Revised in 3 vols., 1874.)

Life and Correspondence of Major-General Sir John Malcolm. 2 vols. 1856. Lives of Indian Officers. 2 vols. 1867. Kazemzadeh, F., Russia and Britain in Persia, 1864 1914. New Haven, USA, 1968.

Keay, John, When Men and Mountains Meet. 1977.

The Gilgit Game. 1979. Kelly, J. ., Britain and the Persian Gulf, 17951880. Oxford, 1968.

Kessler, M.M., Ivan Viktorovich Vitkevich, 1806 1839. A Tsarist Agent in Central Asia. Washington, USA, 1960.

Khalfin, N. A., Russia's Policy in Central Asia, 1857 1863. (Condensed and translated from the 1960 Moscow edn.) 1964.

Khanikoff, M., Bokhara, its Amir and its People. (From the Russian.) 1845.

Khiva. A Narrative of the Russian Military Expedition to Khiva under General Perofski in 1839. (From the Russian.) Calcutta, 1867.

Kinneir, J.M., Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire. 1813.

Journey through Asia Minor, Armenia and Koordistan in 18131814. 1818. Kipling, Rudyard, Kim. 1901. Knight, E. F., Where Three Empires Meet. 1894. Kostenko, Capt. L. F., Description of the Journey of a Russian Mission to Bokhara in 1870. (From the Russian.) Secret and Political Department, India Office, n.d. Krausse, A., Russia in Asia. 1899.

Kuropatkin, Col. A.N., Kashgaria. Historical and Geographical Sketch of the Country, its Military Strength, Industries and Trade. (From the Russian.) Calcutta, 1882.

Les Confins Anglo-Russes dans L'Asie Centrale. (From the Russian.) Paris, 1885.

Lai, Mohan, Journal of a Tour through the Panjab, Afghanistan, Turkestan, Khorasan and Part of Persia. Calcutta, 1834. Life of the Amir Dost Muhammed Khan of Kabul. 2 vols. 1846. Lamb, A., Britain and Chinese Central Asia. The Road to Lhasa, 17671905. 1960.

'Late Resident at Bhagulpore', The Dangers of British India from French Invasion. 1808. Lawrence, Sir George, Forty-three Years in India. 1874. Lobonov-Rostovsky, Prince A., Russia and Asia. New York, 1933.

Lockhart, Col. William, Confidential Report of the Gilgit Mission, 18851886. 1889.

Longworth, J. A., A Year Among the Circassians. 2 vols. 1840.

Lunt, James, Bokhara Burnes. 1969.

MacGregor, Col. .., Narrative of a Journey through the Provinces of Khorassan and on the N. W. Frontier of Afghanistan in 1875. 2 vols. 1879.

Wanderings in Baluchistan. 1882. (Gen. Sir Charles), The Defence of India. Simla, 1884. MacGregor, Lady (ed.), The Life and Opinions of Major-General Sir Charles MacGregor. 2 vols. Edinburgh, 1888.

MacKenzie, D., The Lion of Tashkent. The Career of General M. G. Cherniaev. Athens, USA, 1974.

Maclean, Sir Fitzroy, Eastern Approaches. 1949.

A Person from England. 1958.

To Caucasus. The End of All the Earth. 1976. McNeal R. H., Tsar and Cossack, 18551914. Oxford, 1987. McNeill, Sir John (anon.), Progress and Present Position of Russia in the East. 1836.

Macrory, Sir Patrick, Signal Catastrophe. The Retreat from Kabul, 1842. 1956.

Malcolm, Sir John, History of Persia from the Most Early Period to the Present Day. 2 vols. 1815.

(anon.), Sketches of Persia from the Journals of a Traveller in the East. 2 vols. 1827. Malleson, Col. G.B., History of Afghanistan. 1878.

Herat: The Granary and Garden of Central Asia. 1880.

The Russo-Afghan Question and the Invasion of India.

1885. Malozemoff, A., Russian Far Eastern Policy, 1881 1904. Berkeley, USA, 1958.

Marriott, J. A. R., The Eastern Question. 1917.

Anglo-Russian Relations, 16891943. 1944. Marvin, Charles, The Eye-Witnesses' Account of the Disastrous Russian Campaign against the Akhal Tekke Turkomans. 1880.

Merv, the Queen of the World, and the Scourge of the

Man-Stealing Turkomans. 1881.

The Russian Advance towards India. 1882.

The Russians at Merv and Herat, and their Power of Invading India. 1883.

The Russian Railway to Herat and India. 1883.

The Russian Annexation of Merv. 1884.

Reconnoitring Central Asia. 1884.

The Region of Eternal Fire. An Account of a Journey to

the Petroleum Region of the Caspian in 1883. 1884.

The Railway Race to Herat. 1885.

The Russians at the Gates of Herat. 1885.

(trans, and ed.), Colonel Grodekoff's Ride from Samarkand to Herat. 1880.

Mason, Philip, A Matter of Honour. An Account of the Indian Army. 1974.

Masson, Charles, Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochi-stan, Afghanistan and the Panjab, including a Residence in those Countries. 3 vols. 1842.

Narrative of a Journey to Kalat. 1843.

Masters, John, The Lotus and the Wind. 1953.

Maxwell, Col. Leigh, My God Maiwand! Operations of the South Afghanistan Field Force, 18781880. 1979.

Mayer, S.R., Afghanistan. Its Political and Military History and an Appendix on the Prospects of a Russian Invasion of India. 1879.

Mehra, P., The Younghusband Expedition. An Interpretation. 1968.

Menon, K. S., The 'Russian Bogey' and British Aggression in India and Beyond. Calcutta, 1957.

Meyendorff, Baron, Voyage d'Orenbourg a Boukhara fait en 1820. Paris, 1826.

Michell, Robert (trans.), A Narrative of the Russian Military Expedition to Khiva, conducted by Prince Alexander Bekovitch Cherkasski in 1717. 1873.

Miller, C, Khyber. British India's North-West Frontier. 1977.

Monteith, Lt.-Gen. W., Kars and Erzeroum, with the Campaigns of Prince Paskiewitch in 1823 and 1829, and an Account of the Conquests of Russia Beyond the Caucasus. 1856.

Moorcroft, William, and Trebeck, G., Travels in the Himalayan Provinces of Hindoostan and the Punjab. 2 vols. 1841.

Morgan, Gerald, Ney Elias. Explorer and Envoy Extraordinary. 1971.

Anglo-Russian Rivalry in Central Asia: 18101895. 1981.

Morrell, J. R., Russia and England. Their Strength and Weakness. New York, 1854.

Morris, James, Pax Britannica. (Trilogy.) 1968,1973,1978.

Morrison, J. L., From Alexander Burnes to Frederick Roberts. A Survey of Imperial Frontier History. Raleigh Lecture, 1936.

Moser, L., The Caucasus and its People, with a Brief History of their Wars, and a Sketch of the Achievements of the Renowned Chief Schamyl. 1856.

Muraviev, Nikolai, Journey to Khiva through the Turkoman Country, 18191820. Calcutta, 1871.

Napier, Capt. G. C, Collection of Journals and Reports received from Captain the Hon. G. C. Napier, Bengal Staff Corps, on Special Duty in Persia. 1876.

Nazem, Hossein, Russia and Great Britain in Iran, 1900 1914. Teheran, 1975.

Nemirovitch-Dantchenko, V. I., Personal Reminiscences of General Skobelleff. (From the Russian.) 1884.

Nevill, Capt. H.L., Campaigns on the North-West Frontier. 1912.

North, Lt.-Col. R., The Literature of the North-West Frontier. A Select Bibliography. Peshawar. 1945.

O'Connor, Sir Frederick, On the Frontier and Beyond. 1931.

O'Donovan, Edmond, The Merv Oasis. Travels and Adventures East of the Caspian, 187918801881. 2 vols. 1882.

'O.K.' (Mme Olga Novikoff), Russia and England, from 18761880. 1880.

Pahlen, Count . ., Mission to Turkestan, 19081909. 1964.

Parliamentary Papers, 'Russian Agents in Persia and Afgha-' nistan'. Vol. 40.1839.

Pasley, R., 'Send Malcolm!' The Life of Major-General Sir John Malcolm, 17691833. 1982.

Piassetsky, P., Russian Travellers in Mongolia and China. 2 vols. (From the Russian.) 1884.

Pierce, R.A., Russian Central Asia, 18671917. Berkeley, USA, 1960.

Popowski, J., The Rival Powers in Central Asia. 1893.

Pottinger, G., The Afghan Connection. The Extraordinary Adventures of Major Eldred Pottinger. Edinburgh, 1983.

Pottinger, Lt. Henry, Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde. 1816.

Prejevalsky, Lt.-Col. Nikolai, Mongolia, the Tangut Country and the Solitudes of Northern Tibet. 2 vols. (From the Russian.) 1876.

From Kulja across the Tian Shan to Lob Nor. (From the Russian.) 1879.

Prioux, A., Les Russes dans L'Asie Centrale. Paris, 1886.

Quested, R. K. I., The Expansion of Russia in East Asia, 18571860. Kuala Lumpur, 1968.

Rahman, Abdur, The Life of Abdur Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan. 2 vols. 1900.

Ramazani, R. K., The Foreign Policy of Iran, 15001941 Charlottesville, USA, 1966.

Ravenstein, E. G., The Russians on the Amur. 1861. Rawlinson, Sir Henry, England and Russia in the East. 1875. Rawlinson, Canon G., A Memoir of Sir Henry Rawlinson. 1898. Rayfield, Donald, The Dream of Lhasa. The Life of Nikolay Przhevalsky, 18391888, Explorer of Central Asia. 1976.

Roberts, Field Marshal Lord, Is An Invasion of India Possible? Confidential Report. Madras, 1883.

Forty-One Years in India. 2 vols. 1897. Roberts, P. E., History of British India. Under the Company and the Crown. 1921.

Robertson, Sir George, Confidential Report on a Journey to Kafirstan. 1894.

Chitral. The Story of a Minor Siege. 1898. Robinson, G., David Urquhart. Some Chapters in the Life of a Victorian Knight-Errant of Justice and Liberty. Oxford, 1920. Robson, ., The Road to Kabul. The Second Afghan War 18781881. 1986.

Rodenbough, Brig. T. F. (US Army), Afghanistan and the Anglo-Russian Dispute. New York, 1885.

Romanovski, M., Notes on the Central Asiatic Question. (From the Russian.) Calcutta, 1870.

Russell, R., India's Danger and England's Duty. 1885. Russian Missions into the Interior of Asia. 1. Nazarojf's Expedition to Kokand. 2. Eversmann and Jakovlew's Account of Buchara. 3. Captain Muraviev's Embassy to Turkomania and Chiva. 1823.

Sale, Lady, Journal of the Disasters in Afghanistan. 1843. Schofield, Victoria, Every Rock, Every Hill. The Plain Tale of the North-West Frontier and Afghanistan. 1984.

Schuyler, Eugene, Turkistan. Notes of a Journey in Russian Turkistan, Khokand, Bokhara and Kuldja. 2 vols. 1876.

Seaver, George, Francis Younghusband. Explorer and Mystic. 1952.

Seton-Watson, Hugh, The Decline of Imperial Russia 1855-1914. 1952.

The Russian Empire, 18011917. Oxford, 1967.

Seton-Watson, R. W., Disraeli, Gladstone and the Eastern Question. 1935.

Shakespear, Sir Richmond, 'A Personal Narrative of a Journey from Herat to Orenburg, on the Caspian, in 1840', Blackwood's Magazine. June 1842.

Shaw, Robert, Visits to High Tartary, Yarkand and Kashgar. 1871.

Showers, Maj.-Gen. C.L., The Central Asian Question, and the Massacre of the Cabul Embassy. 1879.

The Cossack at the Gate of India. 1885.

Shukla, R. L., Britain, India and the Turkish Empire, 1853-1882. Delhi, 1973.

Sidebottom, J. K., The Overland Mail. A Postal Historical Study of the Mail Route to India. 1948.

Simond, C., L 'Afghanistan. Les Russes aux portes de L'Inde. Paris, 1855.

Singer, Andre, Lords of the Khyber. 1984.

Skobeleff, Gen. M. D., The Siege and Assault of Denghil Te-pe. (From the Russian.) 1881.

Skrine, C. P., and Nightingale, P., Macartney at Kashgar. New Light on British, Chinese and Russian Activities in Sinki-ang, 18901918. 1973.

Skrine, F. H., and Ross, E. D., The Heart of Asia. A History of Russian Turkestan and the Central Asian Khanates. 1899.

Spiers, E. M., Radical General. Sir George de Lacy Evans, 17871870. Manchester, 1983.

'Stepniak', The Russian Storm-Cloud. Russia in Her Relations to Neighbouring Countries. 1886.

Stewart, Col. Charles, Through Persia in Disguise. 1911.

Stuart, Lt.-Col., Journal of a Residence in Northern Persia and the Adjacent Provinces of Turkey. 1854.

Stumm, H., Russia's Advance Eastward. (From the German.) 1874.

Russia in Central Asia. (From the German.) 1885.

Swinson, A., The North-West Frontier, 19391947. 1967.

Sykes, Sir P. M., A History of Afghanistan. 1 vols. 1940.

Terentiev, M. A., Russia and England in Central Asia. (From the Russian.) Calcutta, 1876.

Thomson, H. C, The Chitral Campaign. 1895.

Thorburn, S. S., Asiatic Neighbours. Edinburgh, 1894. Tikhvinsky, S. L. (ed.), Chapters from the History of Russo-Chinese Relations, 17th to 19th centuries. (From the Russian.) Moscow, 1985.

Trench, Capt. F., The Russo-Indian Question, Historically, Strategically and Politically Considered. 1869.

Tynianov, Y., Death and Diplomacy in Persia. (From the Russian.) 1938.

Urquhart, David, Turkey and its Resources. 1833. England, France, Russia and Turkey. 1834. England and Russia. 1835. The Spirit of the East. 2 vols. 1839. Diplomatic Transactions in Central Asia. 1839. The Progress of Russia in the West, North and South. 1853. Valikhanov, Capt. (et al.), The Russians in Central Asia. (From the Russian.) 1865.

Vambery, Arminius, Travels in Central Asia. 2 vols. 1864. Sketches of Central Asia. 1868.

Central Asia and the Anglo-Russian Frontier Question. 1874.

Arminius Vambery, His Life and Struggles. 2 vols. 1883. The Coming Struggle for India. 1885. 'Vladimir', Russia on the Pacific, and the Siberian Railway. 1899.

Warburton, Sir Robert (anon.), The Russian Warning. Privately printed. Peshawar, 1892.

Waters, Brig.-Gen. W., 'Secret and Confidential '. The Experiences of a Military Attache. 1926.

Weil, M., L'Expedition de Khiva. Paris, 1874. Westmacott, Capt. G.E., Indian Commerce and Russian Intrigue. 1838.

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